As even high school students know these days, the concept of the hydrologic cycle underlies all of what we do as environmental engineering practitioners and educators http://voices.nationalgeographic.com/2014/03/19/the-urban-water-cycle-sustaining-our-modern-cities/. There are several key engineered systems in the urban water cycle:
- Water supply storage & conveyance
- Water treatment plant
- Finished water storage & distribution
- Sewer and stormwater collection system
- Wastewater (and stormwater) treatment plants
- Effluent discharge structure
Historically in the US, in most places, different agencies sprung up to manage the “water” and the “wastewater/stormwater” sides of this cycle. It is obvious however that everything is connected to everything else per Barry Commoner’s First Law of Ecology. There are a few cities that have progressively realized that “water is water” and developed a single agency to manage both sides of the urban cycle. I am glad to live in one such place, where Philadelphia Water is a unified agency handling drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater.
At the professional level in the US, we have had multiple different organizations work in different subsets of the engineered water cycle. The American Water Works Association (AWWA) historically has worked in the water supply, treatment and distribution sectors. The Water Environment Federation (WEF) has worked on the sewerage collection, wastewater treatment and disposal sectors. More recently with the growth of planned wastewater reuse (including for drinking water supply), the Water Reuse Association (WRA) has worked in this sector.
Internationally, there is a more rational picture. In the early 2000’s, realizing that “water is water”, the International Water Association (IWA) was formed from predecessors separately organizing the wastewater and water supply & treatment sectors.
Each of the US organizations has begat parallel foundations to conduct research programs in its areas of interest: the Water Research Foundation (formerly the American Water Works Research Foundation, the Water Environment Research Foundation, and the Water Reuse Research Foundation. Earlier this month, in a baby step towards recognizing “one water”, the latter two foundations merged to form the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation, cleverly maintaining the acronym WERF. They are to be congratulated for this, and should be inspired to go many steps further.
In reality it is high time for the organizations and foundations to take the big step. As someone who works in the areas of disinfection and microbial risk assessment, it has long been obvious to me that there is no big qualitative difference between “dirty” water and “clean” water (some in the industry like to use the terms “clean” water and “cleaner” water). We really need one single US association and one single US foundation. It is time for the US Water Association and the US Water Research Foundation! That would really align the structure of the profession with the structure of what we work on.
Of course there also needs to be unification of the federal legislative structure governing the overall sector – and I may devote a later piece to this.